Type 2 diabetes is the adult onset diabetes. This is because this kind of diabetes usually occurs after the age of forty. It is also called non insulin dependent diabetes, because there may still be insulin release in the body of the patient with this kind of diabetes.
Recently, there are increasing number of adolescents and young adults who develop diabetes type 2. This is mainly due to childhood obesity or just obesity in the case of the young adults. Another thing that can contribute to this trend, especially for those who are obese, is lack of exercise, which is sedentary life style.
Type 2 diabetes is caused when the pancreas is still making insulin, though sometimes less than it did before diabetes. What is believed to be going on is that the immune system destroys some of the passage way for the insulin the insulin uses to move glucose from the blood into the liver, muscles and fat for storage. Though there is insulin, it is not able to move freely into the liver, muscles and fat, where it moves the sugar for storage. This is called insulin resistance. When this happens, the sugar remains in the blood causing the blood sugar in the body to rise more than normal.
When insulin resistance happens, the pancreas may be releasing insulin, but the insulin receptors, which help to move insulin into the organs that store sugar may be damaged. This results in the insulin not being able to do its work. Think about it like this, if you went to work and found out that the elevator that takes you to your 50th floor office is damaged, you may not be able to get to the place where you will discharge your duties, though you are available. Non-insulin dependent diabetes causes may be one of a group of diseases called metabolic syndrome.
Obesity complicates this, because the number of available receptors may not increase as the body mass index or BMI increases. Instead, more of the receptors will become unavailable to carry insulin because of more stress that the extra weight has placed on the body. It is really important to maintain a normal BMI in order to prevent this kind of diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes can be prevented by eating the right diets, exercising and maintaining a body mass index or BMI of less than 26.
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes can be subtle initially and people are known to have diabetes for many years without recognizing the presence of diabetes symptoms. It is important for people who have family history of diabetes adult onset diabetes to watch out for early warning signs of diabetes.
In order for the doctor to determine if someone has diabetes, she will have to check the hemoglobin A1c, which gives a snapshot of how high the person’s blood sugar has been in the past three months. If the A1c is less than 5.7%, it is normal, if it is between 5.7% - 6.4%, it is pre-diabetes and if it is 6.5% or higher, it is considered to be diabetes.
Another test the doctor can use is the glucose tolerance test. In glucose tolerance test, a sugar drink is given to the patient after a fasting blood glucose specimen is drawn. The blood is then redrawn hourly. If the blood glucose is 200mg/dl or above after two hour of taking the drink, the person is considered to have diabetes.
Adult onset diabetes treatment is usually started with diabetes medication that can be taken by mouth. These are called oral diabetes medication or oral glycemic agents. The most common oral diabetes medicine the doctor gives first is metformin. This is because it is the medicine that helps the receptors that the insulin that the pancreas released to work. When only metformin does not work, the doctor prescribes other medicines that can also be taken by mouth . These medicines work in different ways. Some will make the pancreas release more insulin. The reason is that when more an more insulin is in the blood, the few receptors that are working will have a very high chance of the insulin reaching them.
Sometimes the doctor will prescribe insulin for the person with diabetes. It is important that you take the insulin as ordered.
High blood sugar is called hyperglycemia. Low blood sugar is hypoglycemia. Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia need to be treated. If the blood sugar is above 200mg/dl, your doctor may have insulin for you to take to lower it. If your blood sugar is low, you can take drinks or food that can raise it to normal right away. Drink that can raise blood sugar include orange juice, regular soda or milk. Skim milk is best. These will raise the blood sugar right away. It is important to be careful not to take more that necessary so that you do not end of with hyperglycemia.
When a person is diagnosed with type two diabetes, the person needs to learn how to manage diabetes. It is important to learn how the use the blood sugar machine called glucometer to check your blood sugar. Testing your blood sugar helps you to know what your blood glucose is on a daily basis. This can help you adjust you diet and/or insulin.
It is important to have your A1C checked every three months. This gives a snapshot of what your blood sugar has been the past three months. This helps you to know whether to continue your current management regimen or take other actions to keep your blood glucose levels at normal range.
Other important things you need to do is to learn about type 2 diabetic diet control. It is recommended that people have diet that is ½ vegetable, 1/4protein and ¼ complex carbohydrate like whole grains. It is good practice to eat frequent small portions, instead of one large meal at the same time. It is important that the patient works with a dietician to learn about the diabetes exchange diet list.
Exercise is very important in the management of diabetes. This is because exercise improves blood circulation, lowers blood sugar, improves energy and increases the basal metabolic rate for continued blood sugar control.
Another good practice is to keep blood pressure and blood cholesterol normal with a combination of diet, exercise and use of prescribed medications.
Diabetics need to wear comfortable shoes to avoid developing sores and/or infections. People with diabetes should also have diabetic foot care performed daily to avoid infections. Keep the skin clean and moist and get vaccinated to prevent infections.
It is important to choose the right diet. The goal of diabetic diet that is going to keep the blood sugar as close to normal as possible.
Diabetic retinopathy is a disease that affects the eyes and are cause by diabetes. Other disease of the eye that can result from diabetes include cataract and glaucoma.
High blood pressure is a complication of diabetes. The extra sugar that deposits in blood vessels may make the blood vessels less elastic and resistant to blood flow. This increases blood pressure. Also the increased blood sugar and accompanying increase in cholesterol can increase the osmolality of the blood. is how thick a liquid is. Increased osmolality results in the blood exerting more pressure on the blood vessels and this increases blood pressure.
Heart disease is a complications of diabetes. Extra sugar and cholesterol cause atherosclerosis, due to plaque formation. Atherosclerosis leads to heart attacks and stroke. Also, small blood vessels that supply the hear may be damaged, resulting in weak heart.
Many skin problems result from diabetes. it can be fungal infections or bacterial infections. Sometimes there is thickening of skin on the feet. Some skin diseases cause discoloration of the skin.
Diabetic neuropathy affect the feet and fingers. This happens when the nerves get damaged, causing numbness, tingling or pain. Foot ulcers and calluses are also complications of diabetes.
Diabetes type two is a chronic condition. There is no cure for type two diabetes at this time.
Ongoing research on diet, exercise, medication has greatly improved the management and treatment of this disease.
Metabolic syndrome is a combination of diseases that includes diabetes type two.
Type two diabetes is usually adult onset diabetes. It is developed when people are in their forties or later. Childhood obesity is a singular reason why this kind of diabetes is being observed in children. When children, teenagers and young adults are diagnose with non-insulin dependent diabetes, in most cases these people have one major risk factor in common. This common risk factor is childhood obesity.
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